Black bear carcasses will always have a single fresh black bear hide that can be harvested for personal use. Once harvested, it can be cured by drying indoors for 12 days; by far the longest curing period for any animal hide. Curing is done by simply dropping it on the floor of an interior location and waiting. Progress can be checked when nearby by looking at it (the tooltip will have a percent indicating how cured it is).
Two cured black bear hides can be used, in conjunction with five cloth and six cured gut, to craft a bear skin bedroll. A single hide is needed to repair said bedroll. For the Bearskin coat two cured black bear hides and four cured gut are used. Once cured, black bear hides will never decay.